Railway Accidents and Serious Incidents to be investigated



Railway accidents to be investigated
◎ Paragraph 3, Article 2 of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board (Definition of railway accident)
The term "Railway Accident" as used in this Act shall mean a serious accident prescribed by the Ordinance of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism among those of the following kinds of accidents; an accident that occurs during the operation of trains or vehicles as provided in Article 19 of the Railway Business Act, collision or fire involving trains or any other accidents that occur during the operation of trains or vehicles on a dedicated railway, collision or fire involving vehicles or any other accidents that occur during the operation of vehicles on a tramway.

◎ Article 1 of Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board (Serious accidents prescribed by the Ordinance of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, stipulated in paragraph 3, Article 2 of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board)
1. The accidents specified in items 1 to 3 inclusive of paragraph 1 of Article 3 of the Ordinance on Report on Railway Accidents, etc. (the Ordinance);
2. From among the accidents specified in items 4 to 6 inclusive of paragraph 1 of Article 3 of the Ordinance, that which falls under any of the following sub-items:
 (a) an accident involving any passenger, crew, etc. killed;
 (b) an accident involving five or more persons killed or injured;
 (c) an accident found to be likely to have been caused owing to a railway officer's error in handling or owing to malfunction, injury, destruction, etc. of the vehicles or railway facilities, which resulted in the death of any person;
3. The accidents specified in items 4 to 7 inclusive of paragraph 1, Article 3 of the Ordinance which are found to be particularly rare and exceptional;
4. The accidents equivalent to those specified in items 1 to 7 inclusive of paragraph 1, Article 3 of the Ordinance which have occurred relevant to dedicated railways and which are found to be particularly rare and exceptional; and
5. The accidents equivalent to those specified in items 1 to 3 inclusive which have occurred relevant to a tramway, as specified by a public notice issued by the Japan Transport Safety Board.

Reference The accidents listed in each of the items of paragraph 1, Article 3 of the Ordinance on Reporting on Railway Accidents, etc.
   Item 1: Train collision
   Item 2: Train derailment
   Item 3: Train fire
   Item 4: Level crossing accident
   Item 5: Accident against road traffic
   Item 6: Other accidents with casualties
   Item 7: Heavy property loss without casualties

◎ Article 1 of the Public Notice of the Japan Transport Safety Board Accidents specified by the public notice stipulated in item 5, Article 1 of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board)
1. From among the accidents specified in items 1 to 6 inclusive of paragraph 1 of Article 1 of the Ordinance on Reporting on Tramway Accidents, etc. (the Ordinance), that which falls under any of the following sub-items:
 (a) an accident that causes the death of a passenger, crewmember, etc.;
 (b) an accident that causes five or more casualties;
2. The accidents specified in items 1 to 7 inclusive of paragraph 1 Article 1 of the Ordinance which are found to be particularly rare and exceptional; and
3. From among the accidents occurring on a tramway operated under the application of the Ministerial Ordinances to Provide Technical Regulatory Standards Railways mutatis mutandis as specified in paragraph 1 of Article 3 of the Ordinance on Tramway Operations, the accidents equivalent to those specified in items 1 to 3 of Article 1 of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board.

Reference The accidents specified in the items of paragraph 1, Article 1 of the Ordinance on Reporting on Tramway Accidents, etc.
   Item 1: Vehicle collision
   Item 2: Vehicle derailment
   Item 3: Vehicle fire
   Item 4: Level crossing accident
   Item 5: Accident against road traffic
   Item 6: Other accidents with casualties
   Item 7: Heavy property loss without casualties


Railway accidents to be investigated

Category Train collision Train derailment Train fire Level crossing accident Accident against road traffic Other accidents with casualties Heavy property loss without casualties
Railway
(including tramway operated as equivalent to railway)
[Notice 1-3]
All accidents
(These refer to train accidents and do not include vehicle accidents on railways.*1)
[Ordinance 1-1]
・Accidents involving the death of a passenger, crew member, etc.
・Accidents involving five or more casualties
・Accidents found to have likely been caused by a railway worker's error in procedure or due to the malfunction, damage, destruction, etc., of vehicles or railway facilities, which resulted in the death of a person
[Ordinance 1-2]
------
Accidents that are particularly rare and exceptional [Ordinance 1-3]
Private railway Accidents that are particularly rare and exceptional [Ordinance 1-4]
Tramway
[Ordinance 1-5]
Accidents involving the death of a passenger, crewmember, etc., and accidents involving five or more casualties
[Notice 1-1]
------
Accidents that are particularly rare and exceptional [Notice 1-2]

 *1: Among vehicle collisions, derailments, and fires on railways, accidents that fall under the category of level crossing accident, accidents against road traffics , or other accidents with casualties and which involve the death of a passenger, crewmember, etc. [Ordinance 1-2] or which are particularly rare and exceptional [Ordinance 1-3] are to be investigated.
 (Note) “Ordinance” refers to the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board; “Notice” refers to the Public Notice by the Japan Transport Safety Board; and the numbers refer to the Article and paragraph numbers.



Railway serious incidents to be investigated
◎ Item 2, paragraph 4, Article 2 of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board (Definition of railway serious incident)
A situation, prescribed by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board), deemed to bear a risk of accident occurrence.

◎ Article 2 of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board (A situation prescribed by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, stipulated in item 2, paragraph 4, Article 2 of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board.)
1. The situation specified in item 1 of paragraph 1 of Article 4 of the Ordinance on Reporting on Tramway Accidents, etc. (the Ordinance), wherein another train or vehicle had existed in the zone specified in said item;   [A situation where a train starts moving for the purpose of operating in the relevant block section before completion of the block procedure: Referred to as “Incorrect management of safety block.”]
2. The situation specified in item 2 of paragraph 1 of Article 4 of the Ordinance, wherein a train had entered into the route as specified in said item;
  [A situation where a signal indicates that a train should proceed even though there is an obstacle in the route of the train, or the route of the train is obstructed while the signal indicates that the train should proceed: Referred to as “Incorrect indication of signal.”]
3. The situation specified in item 3 of paragraph 1 of Article 4 of the Ordinance, wherein another train or vehicle had entered into the protected area of the signal which protects the zone of the route as specified in said item;
  [A situation where a train proceeds regardless of a stop signal, thereby obstructing the route of another train or vehicle: Referred to as “Violating red signal.”]
4. The situation specified in item 7 of paragraph 1 of Article 4 of the Ordinance, which caused malfunction, injury, destruction, etc. bearing particularly serious risk of collision or derailment of or fire in a train;
  [A situation that causes a malfunction, etc., of facilities: Referred to as “Dangerous damage in facilities.”]
5. The situation specified in item 8 of paragraph 1 of Article 4 the Ordinance, which caused malfunction, injury, destruction, etc. bearing particularly serious risk of collision or derailment of or fire in a train;
  [A situation that causes a malfunction, etc., of a vehicle: Referred to as “Dangerous trouble in vehicle.”]
6. The situation specified in items 1 to 10 inclusive of paragraph 1 of Article 4 of the Ordinance which is found to be particularly rare and exceptional; and
  [These are referred to as: item 4 “Main track overrun”; item 5 “Violating closure section for construction”; item 6 “vehicle derailment”; item 9 “Heavy leakage of dangerous object”; and item 10 “others,” respectively.]
7. The situations occurred relevant to the tramway as specified by a public notice of the Japan Transport Safety Board as being equivalent to the situations specified in the in preceding items.

◎ Article 2 of the Public Notice of the Japan Transport Safety Board
(A situation prescribed by the public notice stipulated in item 7, Article 2 of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board (Serious incident on a tramway))
1. The situation specified in item 1 of Article 2 of the Ordinance on Reporting on Tramway Accidents, etc. (the Ordinance), wherein another vehicle operating on the main track had existed in the zone specified in said item;
  [A situation where a vehicle is operating on the main track for the purpose of operating in the relevant safety zone before the completion of safety system procedures: Referred to as “Incorrect management of safety block.”]
2. The situation specified in item 4 of Article 2 of the Ordinance, which caused malfunction, injury, destruction, etc., bearing a particularly serious risk of collision, derailment of or fire in a vehicle operating on the main track;
  [A situation that causes a malfunction, etc., of facilities: Referred to as “Dangerous damage in facilities.”]
3. The situation specified in item 5 of Article 2 of the Ordinance, which caused malfunction, injury, destruction, etc., bearing a particularly serious risk of collision, derailment of or fire in a vehicle operating on the main track;
  [A situation that causes a malfunction, etc., of a vehicle: Referred to as “Dangerous trouble in vehicle.”]
4. The situation specified in items 1 to 7 inclusive of Article 2 of the Ordinance which is found to be particularly rare and exceptional; and
  [These are referred to as: item 2 “Violating red signal;” item 3 “Main track overrun;” item 6 “Heavy leakage of dangerous object;” and item 7 “others,” respectively.]
5. From among the situations occurring on a tramway operated under the application of the Ministerial Ordinances to Provide Technical Regulatory Standards Railways mutatis mutandis as specified in paragraph 1 of Article 3 of the Ordinance on Tramway Operations, the situations equivalent to those specified in items 1 to 6 of Article 2 of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board.


Serious incidents to be investigated

Category ・Incorrect management of safety block (Railway)
・Incorrect management of safety block (Tramway)
・Incorrect indication of signal (Railway)
・Violating red signal
Dangerous damage in facilities Dangerous trouble in vehicle ・Main track overrun
・Violating closure section for construction (Railway)
・Vehicle derailment (Railway)
・Heavy leakage of dangerous object
・Others
Railway
(Including tramway operated as equivalent to railway)
[Notice 2-5]
Certain conditions such as the presence of another train
[Ordinances 2-1, 2-2, and 2-3]
Risk of collision, derailment or fire
[Ordinances 2-4/ 2-5]
------
Incidents that are particularly rare and exceptional [Ordinance 2-6]
Tramway
[Ordinance 2-7]
Certain conditions such as the presence of a vehicle
[Notice 2-1]
------ Risk of collision, derailment or fire
[Notices 2-2 and 2-3]
------
Incidents that are particularly rare and exceptional [Notice 2-4]

 (Note) “Ordinance” refers to the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board; “Notice” refers to the Public Notice by the Japan Transport Safety Board, and the numbers refer to the Article and paragraph numbers.

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