ROADS in JAPAN

Technical standard

ROAD STRUCTURE ORDINANCE
(Government Ordinance No.320 of 29 October, 1970)

(Climbing Lane)
Article 21

  1. A climbing lane, if necessary, shall be provided to the carriageway of the regular motor vehicle roads where grades exceed 5% (or 3% when the design speed is no less than 100 km per hour on other regular motor vehicle roads than national expressways and national highways).

  2. The climbing lane width shall be 3m.

(Vertical Curve)
Article 22

  1. Vertical curves shall be provided where grades change on the carriageway.

  2. Radii of vertical curves shall be more than the values listed in the radius of vertical curve column of the following table according to design speed and Types of vertical curves, except when the radii of crest vertical curves on Type 4 Class 1 roads, when design speed is 60km per hour, the radii shall be reduced to 1,000m, where topographical conditions or any other reasons do not permit such provisions.

  3. Vertical curve lengths shall be more than the values listed in the below right column of the following table according to design speed.

Design Speed (km/h) Type of Vertical Curve Radius of Vertical Curve(m)
120 Crest 11,000
Sag 4,000
100 Crest 65,00
Sag 3,000
80 Crest 3,000
Sag 2,000
60 Crest 1,400
Sag 1,000
50 Crest 65,00
Sag 800
40 Crest 700
Sag 450
30 Crest 250
Sag 250
20 Crest 100
Sag 100
Design Speed (km/h) Vertical Curve Length(m)
120 100
100 85
80 70
60 50
50 40
40 35
30 25
20 20

(Pavement)
Article 23

  1. Carriageways, center strips (except for divider), shoulders connected with carriageways, bicycle tracks and sidewalks shall be paved except in unavoidable cases, such as extremely small traffic volume.

  2. The pavement of carriageways and marginal strips shall be constructed so that safe and smooth vehicular traffic can be ensured on the basis of the design wheel load of 49 kN, in consideration of designed daily volume, vehicle weight, subgrade conditions, and meteorological conditions and that shall meet the standards laid down in the Ordinance of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, except in the case of traffic volume of small vehicles or any other unavoidable conditions.

  3. Type 4 roads (except for tunnels) shall be constructed so that it shall be capable of causing storm water to permeate smoothly under the road surfaces and reducing the traffic noise level, in consideration of the land uses and vehicle traffic conditions in the area where the roads are located or along them, except where road structure, meteorological conditions or other special reasons do not permit such provisions.

(Cross Slope)
Article 24

  1. Cross slopes shall be provided to the carriageway, center strip (except for divider) and shoulder connected wi th the carriageway according to road surface Type and the right side values as listed in the following table unless Superelevation is provided.

  2. 2% of cross slope as a standard shall be provided to sidewalks and bicycle tracks.

  3. The paved road of the structure specified in paragraph 3 of the previous Article may dispense with or reduce cross slope, if proper road surface drainage can be ensured in consideration of meteorological conditions.

Road Surface Type Cross Slope (%)
Paved Road Complying with Standards Specified in Article 23.2 1.5 - 2
Others 3 - 5

(Compound Grade)
Article 25

  1. Compound Grades (hereinafter indicating combination of vertical grade and Superelevation or cross slope) shall be no more than the right side values as listed in the following table according to design speed, except for roads with design speed of 30km/h or 20km/h where compound grades may be 12.5% in unavoidable cases, such as topographical conditions or any other reasons.

  2. Compound grades shall be not more than 8% on those roads located in severely snowy or cold areas.

Design Speed (km/h) Compound Grade (%)
120 10
100
80 10.5
60
50 11.5
40
30
20

(Drainage Facility)
Article 26

Gutter, gully, or other drainage facilities shall be provided to roads if necessary.

(At-grade Intersection or Connection)
Article 27

  1. An intersection shall be designed so as to contain no more than five intersecting legs, except when it is located in a special place such as in front of a station.

  2. At an intersection where two or more roads join or intersect at grade, if necessary, a turning lane, speed change lane, or island shall be provided, and corners of intersection shall be cut, and unobstructed sight shall be ensured.

  3. Where the turning lane or speed change lane is provided, lane width (except for the turning lane or speed change lane) of the related section may be reduced to 3m for Type 4 Class 1 regular motor vehicle roads or to 2.75m for Type 4 Class 2 or 3 regular motor vehicle roads or to 2.5m for Type 4 smaller motor vehicle roads.

  4. The standard width of turning and speed change lanes shall be 3m for regular motor vehicle roads and 2.5m for smaller motor vehicle roads.

  5. Where a turning or speed change lane is provided, proper runoff shall be provided according to design speed.

(Grade Separation)
Article 28

  1. When two regular motor vehicle roads having four or more lanes intersecting mutually, excluding climbing lanes, turning lanes and speed change lanes, the intersection shall be separated by grades as a rule, except when the grade separation is unsuitable due to traffic conditions or in an unavoidable case such as a topographical reason.

  2. When a smaller motor vehicle road with four or more lanes (except for turning lanes and speed change lanes) crosses another smaller motor or a regular motor vehicle road, the intersection shall be separated by grades.

  3. Where the grade separation is provided, a road linking intersecting roads mutually (hereinafter referred to as a “ramp” ) shall be provided if necessary.

  4. Provisions of Articles 5 through 8, Article 12, Article 13, Article 15, Article 16, Articles 18 through 20, Articles 22 and 25 shall not be applied to the ramp.

(At-grade Intersection with Railway)
Article 29

When a road intersects at a grade with a railway or street railway newly constructed in accordance with the Street Railway Act (Act No.76 1921) (hereinafter referred to as a “railway” ), the road shall be so constructed as specified below.

  1. Intersection angles shall be not less than 45 degrees.

  2. Sections 30m from both ends of railroad crossing and the railroad crossing section shall be straight and vertical carriageways, grades for these sections shall be less than 2.5%, except where there is extremely small vehicular traffic volume or topographical conditions or any other reasons do not permit such provisions.

  3. A visible distance, distance from the intersection point of the railway end track centerline and the carriageway centerline to the point on the track centerline visible at the height of 1.2m at point 5m on the carriageway centerline from the track, shall not be less than the values listed in the following table, except for where a crossing gate or other security facilities are provided or with smaller vehicular traffic volume and fewer passing trains.

Maximum Train Speed at Railroad Crossing (km/h) Visible Distance (m)
Less than 50 110
50-70 160
70-80 200
80-90 230
90-100 260
100-110 300
More than 110 350

(Turnout)
Article 30

Turnout shall be provided on Type 3 Class 5 roads as specified below, except for on roads where smooth traffic can be ensured.

  1. Distance between two turnouts shall be within 300m.

  2. Roads between two turnouts shall be visible from one of these turnouts.

  3. The length shall be more than 20m and the total width of the carriageway shall be more than 5m.

 
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