Section 2 Aimed at Establishing a New Transport System

Chapter 1 Establishing a New Domestic Transport System

1. Establishing a Trunk Line Passenger Transport System

  (1) Basic Approach Required for Trunk Line Passenger Transport
    People are likely to become more active over a wider geographical area in the future. There is a strong need, in light of this, to construct a trunk line passenger transport system that people can use when they want to. It should be a system that takes them from point A to point B comfortably and quickly, according to a timetable of their own choosing.
    The extreme national focus on Tokyo needs to be lessened and decentralization should be pursued to ensure balanced national development. Nation-wide development of a trunk line passenger transport system is necessary to improve a large range of essential national functions, including moving people, facilitating distribution and stimulating economic activity and culture life in regional areas.
    In developing this sort of system, global environmental problems need to be handled increasingly. Consideration needs to be given to the possibility of resolving the hitherto opaque relation between demand and supply in the fossil energy problem. As well as reducing the impact on the environment, it is highly desirable that positive efforts is made towards establishing and expanding an energy-efficient, high-speed railway network, which have few bad influence to the enviroment and is energy-efficient.
  (2) Basic Thinking Concerning Establishment of Trunk Line Passenger Transport System
  (A). Basic Themes in Establishment of Trunk Line Passenger Transport System In the establishment of a trunk line passenger transport system, it is necessary to deal with the following basic matters:
 @ Establishing a transport facility which is capable of handling both present and future demand
 A Reduction of total door-to-door travel time
 B Increase in the frequency of trains and airplanes to supply service which can be used flexibly
 C Raising levels of comfort and convenience
  (B). Thinking Behind Establishment of Trunk Line Passenger Transport System
    In the basis of the trunk line passenger system, it is important to promote the high-speed trunk line network by utilizing a connecting role between regions and the unique character of individual modes of transport.
    There should be an emphasis on connecting Japan's three major metropolitan centers, on connecting these centers with regional areas, connecting regional areas which have strong economic ties, and on connecting important cities within regions.
    Furthermore, besides just developing the basis of the network, an emphasis on increasing access can create an efficiently structured system which is convenient to users. It is important to develop a total system which combines a basic network with a means of access that suits individual regions.
  (3) Concrete Measures Required for the Establishment of a Trunk Line Passenger Transport System for the 21st Century
  (A). Establishment of a Rail Network
  (a) Restructuring of the High-Speed Rail Network
    There is an existing rail network covering most of the country, and the Shinkansen network is being extended one branch at at time. However, it is still in a developmental stage when one considers the scope of a fully fledged high-speed network.
    There are some areas in the existing rail network on which high speeds are possible - on one section the Tsugaru Kaikyo Line trains can travel at speeds of up to 140 km/h, and on parts of the Joban and Kosai lines speeds of up to 130 km/h are possible. However, there are not many of these good sections, so the areas in which high speeds are possible are limited. Consequently, the operational speed (average speed including stopping time at stations) on most lines, is generally between 60 - 90 km/hr. (Fig.16)
    In the advanced western world, top rail speeds are now in excess of 160 km/h and on many areas of lines operational speeds of 100 - 120 are possible. According to an interim statement on the high-speed rail network of Europe released by the EC in December 1990, by the year 2010, the EC aims to construct 9 thousand kilometers of line in which speeds in excess of a new 250km/h maximum are possible. Through improvements on existing lines, speeds in excess of 200km/h will be possible on 12 thousand kilometers of line. Japan's stands out in comparison, for how far it is falling behind in raising the speed of its existing rail network.
    As the value of people's time rises a greater need can be expected for high-speed railways. Further proof of this is the startling increase in transport volume on lines where speeds have been raised in recent years. (Fig.17)
    It is necessary to restructure the high-speed rail network in light of this, promoting the Shinkansen network as a structural axis and raise the speed of existing railways to fill out the rest of the skeleton of a total national rail network. (Fig.18)
  (b) Measures to Deal With the Real Situation
  @ Further Construction of New Shinkansen Lines
    The superior qualities of Shinkansen lines are exhibited over medium and short distances have a big demand. However, since the investment is enormous, due consideration should be given to investment results and construction should be pursued in single stages.
    New three Shinkansen construction is going ahead according to a basic scheme that considers matters including construction standards, priority in construction order, and funding policy. (Table 1)
  A Speeding Up the Rail Network
    The total time required for travel is being reduced - direct non-stop services on Shinkansen and existing lines are being promoted and transfers between Shinkansen and existing lines made more convenient.
    There is a goal to raise the maximum speed to 160km/h or above, and operating speeds to 100km/h or above. Other measures being promoted include improving the structure of lines, strengthening track, renovating carriages and investing in new carriages. (Fig.19) Technological development is underway for application with already existing Shinkansen lines in order to raise speeds further.
    Developments include new train carriages.
  B Dealing With Limitations in Capacity for the Tokaido Shinkansen
    Crowding on the Tokaido Shinkansen during peak periods is worsening. (Fig.20) Effective measures are being implemented for increasing transport volume, and an increase in the number of trains is being considered.
  C Establishment of a Medium to Long-term Policies
    Rail construction needs to be pursued in a planned manner in light of both the enormous investment and the length of the investment period. Therefore, the MOT should takes a medium to long-term approach to rail construction, aiming to pursue construction in a planned and ordered manner. The MOT initiated an inquiry on June 17, 1991 - "Basic Thinking Concerning Medium to Long-Term Construction of Rail in Preparation for the 2lst Century", and the council for Transport Policy is undertaking its research within the Ministry's Railway Sub-Committee.
  (B) Establishment of an Air Network
  (a) Strengthening of Japan's Bipolar Network, and Establishment of a Multipolar Network
    Air transport is characterized as a high-speed transport system mainly over long distances. Demand for air transport as increased as people become active over a broader geographical range and income levels rise. The network is not keeping up and facilities are lacking, particularly in major metropolitan areas where services are concentrated. (Fig.21)
    To counteract this, as far as possible a network which can handle direct jet services is being implemented. Where demand increases beyond the supply of direct services, the system for connecting services will need to be strengthened.
    The Tokyo International Airport and the Osaka International Airport have reached full capacity. Actual plans to alleviate capacity problems should be put in practice to increase airport capacity in these two major centers and a national network of routes radiating from the two major metropolitan centers should be established.
    The local and national role of large regional cities such as Sapporo, Nagoya, Fukuoka and Naha should be strengthened further. A multipolar network needs to be established - direct services from these "mother" airports points in regional areas to nationwide and their role as points of transfer from main air routes to local air routes need to be raised.
  (b) Measures to Deal With the Real Situation
  1 Increasing Airport Capacity in Japan's Two Major Metropolitan Centers
    A sea-fill project is underway at the Tokyo International Airport and first-stage construction is being carried out at Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport should be further utilizeated, in order to attempt to cope with domestic demand for air services concentrated on the country's two major metropolitan centers. (Fig.22)
    In addition to this, a comprehensive survey is being made into the construction of new facilities and a higher level of utilization of existing airports and aerodromes in order to further raise airport capacity in the Tokyo area.
    Results of the survey will be used as the basis for structuring measures to raise capacity. At the kansai International Airport, a full-scale survey into plans for second stage development is being urgently undertaken in order to further raise airport capacity in the Osaka area.
  2 Establishing Regional Airports as Centers
    Direct services (not passing through Tokyo or Osaka) to airports in regional centers such as the Shin-Chitose Airport and the Fukuoka Airport should be increased in line with demand. Airport terminal facilities are being established in order to promote the use of these large regional airports as transfer points for flights to other centers to which direct services cannot be justified.
  3 Establishing Regional Airports
    Consideration is being given to the limitations of the Tokyo and Osaka airports. In order to respond to the increase in demand in these two airports, construction in other regional airports is being undertaken such as the lengthening of runways so that larger aircraft can be handled; this construction has the final aim of making airports capable of handling jets.
    These new projects are being undertaken after giving due consideration to demand forecast, the possibility of improving access to existing airports, possibility of replacement by other forms of transport, whether or not user convenience will be raised through satisfying demand.
    The regional network aims to strengthen routes connecting regional airports with offshore islands. The measures are being drawn up to utilize the commuter air service which has the special features at eliminating blank spaces for the high-speed transport system, and a role for complementing the scheduled air services.
  4 Effective Use of Airspace
    Airspace capacity is at saturation point in the areas in which air transport is particularly focused such as the Kanto and Kansai regions and important air routes. Air transport volume is expected to increase further on the completion of the three major airports projects presently underway.
    Measures are being implemented for the effective use and reorganization of airspace, in cooperation with the authorities concerned to ensure sufficient airspace. New technology and managing methods are being developed and utilized.
    A comprehensive assessment is underway into effectively raising user convenience and establishing environmental countermeasures for the surrounding area, in order to expand the capacities of existing airports to their maximum potential. Arrivals and departure hours need to be expanded in order to achieve this.
  5 Drafting of Medium- to Long-Term Airport Development Plans
    Large amounts of funds require to be invested over a long period in order to construct the airports which form the basis of an airport network. Since FY1967, a series of medium to long-term plans - 5-year airport development plan - have been established for that purpose.
    For the five years from FY1991, planned construction of airport facilities, etc. was undertaken according to the "Sixth 5-Year Airport Construction Plan" which is scheduled to be approved in the fall of 1991.
  (C) Construction and Effective Use of the Main Road Network
  (a) Dealing With Road Congestion and Environmental Problems
    Trunk roads are used for high-speed travel by private cars and long-distance buses within important areas and between adjacent areas. They are also used for nationwide distribution.
    However, as the transport volume on roads increases congestion continues to increase in the metropolitan area, on surrounding arterial roads, and on interconnecting regional expressways such as the Tomei Expressway and the Meishin Expressway. As the speed of vehicular transport increases, there has been an alarming drop in reliability in terms of time and user convenience. (Fig.23)
    It has become apparent that global warming is caused due to the release of carbon-dioxide (C02) and atmospheric pollution due to the release of nitrous oxides (NOx). What's more, automobiles are a major source of these wastes.
In order to cope with this environmental problem it is necessary to implement a modal shift (a move away from truck transport to more efficient modes of transport such as rail and sea), to establish a principal road network, and to strengthen connections between different transport systems.
  (b) Measures to Deal With the Real Situation
  (1) Implementation of a Modal Shift
    Rail and sea transport capacity needs to be strengthened as a base for modal shift. Trucks that can be used in piggy-back type transport need to be constructed in order to establish an environment in which it is easy for distributors and companies sending goods to use both rail and sea transport. This will facilitate a modal shift.
    Wider rails are required to carry the larger container trains, and port and harbor infrastructure need to be constructed so that cargo can be handled on domestic container carriers and ferries.
    It is also important to go ahead with the construction of access roads to railway stations and ports and harbors, and to ensure a smooth connection between road, and rail and sea transport.
  (2) Effective Equipping of a Trunk Road Network and Strengthening Connections With Other Areas of Public Transport
    Work is now going ahead to superimpose a latitudinal road structure on an already established longitudinal road structure at the high-standard trunk roads, in order to construct an effective main road network. It is necessary to pursue the construction of by-passes, so that traffic does not pass through the center of cities where road congestion is already bad, and so that general public roads which function in a unitary way with the high-standard trunk roads such as loop highways.
Consequently it is very important to go ahead with the construction of connecting roads joining high-standard trunk roads, city centers, etc. and locations such as Shinkansen stations and airports, etc., in order to strengthen connections with other modes of transport.
  (D) Access to Transport Networks
  (a) Improving Access
    It is important to establish access to various modes of transport to improve mobility between any point of departure and point of arrival.
    It is necessary to carry out planned construction of high-speed and punctual types of transport giving access to airports, whether they be rail or other means. In March, 1991 the rail link to Narita Airport Station was completed. (Fig.24) Further development of connecting roads to expressway interchanges is important.
    The construction of a sea access network is also underway for airports which are located either on the sea or on the coastline
    In order to improve access to Shinkansen stations on high-speed rail lines, it is important to strengthen the role of connecting roads tying stations and expressway interchanges. Efforts are being put into the coordination of rail and bus schedules within regions to facilitate smooth transfers.
  (b) Improving Interchange Function of Terminals
    As well as reducing the total time required for moving from one place to another, it is also necessary to raise the function of airports, expressways, etc. in order to make travel easier.
    This should involve the construction of facilities which allow capacity functioning within a congested terminal, in which arrivals and departures are located in close proximity and which ensure prompt movement within a terminal.
    A system needs to be established and facilities constructed in order to reduce the time required for departures procedures, and better supply of information is required for smooth flow of travellers around the terminal. Car park facilities need to be expanded to handle people coming to terminals by private car, and sub-terminals need to be constructed for related services such as car rental.

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